True Shi'ah's Contentment with Divine Decree
Ayatollah Allamah Mohammad Taqi Misbah
One of the characteristics of the Shi'ah to which the Commander of the Faithful, Imam Ali (pbuh) refers is that their state of mind when they are forced with problems and afflictions is the same as that in times of prosperity and when granted a favor. Just as common people feel contented in times of pleasure and comfort and do not complain, the pious and true Shi’ah seem contented and never complain in times of disaster and affliction. In these conditions they do not feel impatience or discomfort and, to them, being in trouble and being in prosperity seem to have no difference. This morality of in true Shi’ah is ascribed to their contentment with divine decree. They consider each of prosperity and trouble as Divine determination, and because these afflictions are predestined by God, they welcome them and do not complain.
Key words: true Shi’ah, divine suffocation, pleasure, station of contentment.
The Principles of Imam Khomeini’s Political Philosophy
Abodllah Akhlaghi/ Mahdi Omidi
The political philosophy of Imam Khomeini is a continuation of Islamic political philosophy by resting on a new approach to Sadra's philosophy, which firstly, rejects secular political philosophy and secondly, has significant differences from the formalist religious trend. The basic question the arises is; what are the principles on which this school of thought is founded which make it distinct from the other two paradigms?” Citing documentary evidence and using documental, software and reliable internet websites, this research seeks to establish and explain the epistemological, ontological, teleological and anthropological principles of Imam Khomeini’s political philosophy. The main aim of this paper is to underline how, in Imam Khomeini's view, monotheism plays part in political and social life. This research shows how the principles of this political philosophy are based on monotheistic ontology, epistemology on the Book of creation and the composed Book and anthropology on the two dimensional nature of man, which involves applying divine revelation to man’s political and social life, on one hand, and which is based on the rational findings and common sense of mankind in the social and political fields, on the other.
Key words: Imam Khomeini, principles, political philosophy, epistemological, ontological, anthropological.
The Desired Political System in the Political Philosophy of the Supreme Leader
Ali Akbar Seylani
According to the political philosophy of the supreme leader, the desired political system is Islamic democracy. He proposes this theory by resting on different approaches, including political Fiqh (jurisprudence), political theology and political philosophy. The present paper uses an analytical method to explain this theory according to political philosophy and seeks to clarify one of the most important issues of political philosophy approach proposed by one of the most influential Muslim thinkers in a period when Muslim community is in desperate need of it. Resting on the principles derived from the sacred law of Islam such as monotheism in creation and ownership and divine eternal knowledge, the theory of Islamic democracy considers the management of society and government during the period of occultation as a divine act, and people are one of the pillars of legitimizing it and has such characteristics like attending to religious and moral education, offering service, bearing responsibility and taking notice of people's consent. The privilege of Islamic democracy that has proved efficiency over three decades is that, besides getting people's vote, it regards such criteria like knowledge, justice and governance to be necessary for the legitimacy of government and achieving human happiness.
Key words: Islam, guardianship, legislation, democracy.
Law and Its Ontological Foundations in Martyr Sadr's Political Philosophy
Mansour Shateri - Mohsen Rezvani
Law is one of the main topics of political philosophy. Laying out rigid and formal rules is one of the criteria and procedures of assessing a desired political philosophy. Formal and good rules are those rules that, cover all aspects of political society and that are quite consistent with ontology and anthropology too. This paper investigates the different laws in the political system of Islam from martyr Sadr's view. Concerning governance, the strict laws of Islam have a stable system that is consistent with the unchangeable features of the universe and have variable features which are suitable to the changing circumstances of time. Influenced by these features, Islamic law is based on the most important foundations of theology and anthropology, besides it is being comprehensive and suitable to all times and places. Because of their conformity with the laws of nature and existence and with requirement of man's nature, the laws of Islam are regarded highly desirable and comprehensive.
Key words: political philosophy, laws, traditions, state in the text, legislative, mantaqat al-faragh, the Constitution.
The Nature and Foundations of the Political Philosophy of Professor Morteza Motahari
Davood Taqiloo - Mehdi Omidi
Since its early introduction in to the Muslim world, political philosophy has been of special interest to the experts in this field. However, political philosophy in Islam rejected some unfair comments and doubts were raised about it, and also some people were rejecting it. One of the best ways of responding to these doubts is to consider the political philosophies of the philosophers whose thoughts have the mentioned capacity. Since the relationship between theoretical philosophy and practical philosophy is among the important issues of political philosophy, and because there is a fundamental and positive relationship between them, the discussion on the nature and foundations of this relationship is the considered starting point of this important research. The main question with which this study is concerned is: what are the nature and foundations of professor Motahari's political philosophy. What are the essential requirements of the foundations of this political philosophy? The political philosophy of professor Motahari represents a set of philosophical reflections and some normative ideas that systematically investigate the nature, foundations and central issues about politics and ideal political system. The ontological foundations in the legitimacy of government, the anthropological foundations in such issues like freedom, justice and political participation and also the role of reason and revelation can be traced throughout the political philosophy of professor Motahari. The method used in this paper is descriptive-analytical.
Key words: political philosophy, foundations, ontology, anthropology, epistemology.
The Status and Types of Political Participation in Islamic Democracy
Because of its fundamental role in governing a political society, political participation is considered a key element of democracy. Political participation is a kind of participation which is the outcome of a wise, sensible and voluntary decision made by an individual or a group about something important, and that is, choosing the way of meeting individual or community needs. Among the instances of this kind of political participation are joining a political party, voting, applying for different posts, replacement of the regime’s authorities, expressing one's disagreement with the government's policy in a lawful manner. When we consider the different dimensions of the theory of religious democracy we notice that political participation has a very important role in this theory. The different types of political participation are taken into account in religious democracy. Selecting, being selected, supervision, criticism and expressing total disagreement are among the instances which demonstrate the different types of political participation and their importance in the theory religious democracy. This paper uses a descriptive-analytical method.
Key words: democracy, Islamic democracy, political participation.
The Relationship of Religion with Politics in the Eye of Ayatollah Misbah
Mohammad Ali Mohiti Ardakan
Politics or political sciences is one of the important disciplines of the human sciences, about whose relationship with religion there has been fierce debate among Muslims and non-Muslims. Using a descriptive method, the paper first makes a lexical analysis and then expounds Ayatollah Misbah's view about the relationship of religion with politics. The author focuses in this paper on establishing and explaining the theoretical principles of research including the quiddity and scope of religion highlighting the necessity of law and government, investigating the relationship between Islam and government in the two realms of lawmaking and law enforcement, and evaluating the arguments of the proponents of necessity of the separation of religion from politics. According to Ayatollah Misbah, intellectual reasoning and canonical evidence show that politics is part of religion and an integral part of it. He belives that those who use the rich sources of Islam and study them closely and thoughtfully and without prejudice can clearly understand this relationship.
Key words: religion, politics, secularism, government, law, Ayatollah Misbah.