theories: secular and religious". Here, after introducing the writer of the book, the title of the chapters and a summary of the book content are presented. Then, some critical points on the third part of the book and the writer's success in achieving his alleged goal are stated. In the end, a list of other works by the same writer is presented. The contents of the book are as follows: the first part presents a framework for comparing different theories; the second part deals with secular theories; the third part claims to present the theories having their roots in the doctrines of the religions; and the forth part forms some final considerations by the writer.
The relationship between communication skills And marital satisfaction
Abulfazl Ibrahimi / Masoud Jan Bozorgi, Phd
The present study's purpose is to investigate the relationship between communication skills and marital satisfaction. The correlation research method was used in this study. 45 male and female seminary students in Qom were selected using cluster random selection method, and were tested concerning the purpose and the hypotheses of the study. We Used the communication skill questionnaire To examine the communication skills, and We used the Enrich's questianaire of marital saticfaction to examine the marital satisfaction. the data were analyzed using the Pearson's correlation coefficient test. The results revealed a Significant correlation (r=0.60; P < 0.01) between communication skills and marital satisfaction. Besides, there is a Significant positive relationship between four Components of the Components of the communication skills (emotional management, verbal expression, listening skills, insight) and marital satisfaction. Thus, the more the communication skills one has, the more his marital satisfaction would be.
KEY WORDS: marital relationship, communication skills, marital satisfaction, relationship.
We Used the communication Skill Questionnaire and to examine the communication Skills, We Used the Enrich's questionnaireof morital Satisfaction.
A writer, a claim:
A glimpse at a book entitled " Moral development theories: secular and religious"
Ali Reza Sheikh Shuaei
This paper is to introduce and review in short the book "moral development * * *
A survey of the relationship between religious-oriented happiness, and psychological happiness and depression in students of Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute, Qom 1385-86
Kazem Ali Muhannadi / Masoud Jan Bozorgi, PhD
This study's purpose is to test the hypothesis of whether there is a relationship between religious doctrines (if transformed to measurable parameter) in the domain of happiness, and the psychological happiness and depression. Furthermore, can we create an instrument based on religious sources to measure happiness? The present study has investigated this relationship in 42 male and female married students in Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute in Qom. To this end, a questionnaire of happiness Components based on the Prophet and Imams' traditions was prepared and validated and presented to the sample group along with the Oxford happiness inventory and the Beck's depression inventory. Then the data were analyzed using Pearson's product-moment correlation procedure. The results revealed that religious happiness has a Significant positive relationship with psychological happiness, and a Significant negative relationship with depression. In view of these relationships, this study shows that an instrument can be created based on religious sources for measuring religious and unreligious individuals' happiness. Furthermore, the negative relationship with depression reveals that some interVenting can be arranged to somehow change the lifestyle of the depressed people through Practicing some religious parameters of happiness.
KEY WORDS: measuring religious happiness, psychological happiness, Oxford happiness inventory, depression.
* * *
A survey of the relationship between achievement motivation and optimism
Najibullah Nuri / Masoud Jan Bozorgi, PhD
This study's purpose is to investigate the relationship between achievement motivation and optimism, and to delineate the relationship between the parameters of these two variables and some others variables such as rivalry and the level of education. To test the hypotheses, the researcher has selected 64 subjects (during two terms) randomly from male students in Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute in 1385-86. All subjects replied to the "Helmreich's achievement motivation test" normalized in Mazandaran province, and the test of optimism translated and validated by the researcher. The data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation, "t" Test regression. The results revealed that there is a Significant positive relationship between achievement motivation Disregarding one of its parameters, and the extended optimism. There is also a Significat positive relationship between two parameters of achievement motivation, i.e. "leaning towards achievement" and "Perseverance", and optimism. No relationship was observed between another parameter of achievement motivation, i.e. "rivalry", and optimism. The scores of M.A. students for achievement motivation and optimism were not much different with those of B.A. students. Consequently, three hypotheses out of four were supported: there is a Significant relationship between optimism and achievement motivation; five parameters of achievement motivation differ in their relations with optimism; and rivalry is negatively related to optimism. Besides, there is no relationship between the level of education and the level of achievement motivation.
KEY WORDS: optimism, achievement motivation, perseverance, proper performance of the tasks, rivalry.
social ethics, pointing to the importance of interaction with others in fulfilling men's needs and consequently their mental health, we have enumerated consequences of some social and moral behaviors and attributes such as good disposition, humility, and benevolence. In the section on individual ethics, we have studied the role of some moral behaviors and attributes such as asceticism, patience, and trust in God.
* * *
The Challenge of Severity and Tenderness in Quran and Psychology
Muhammad Kaviani / Seyyide Zohre Musavi
In this study, two concepts of Social-psychology, i.e. helping behavior and aggression have been briefly introduced and evaluated from Quranic viewpoint. The findings are as follows:
1. the primary principle is the helping behavior, and the aggression and harshness is only used in times of necessity;
2. the helping behavior action is in three forms of financial, emotional, and behavioral;
3. the helping behavior is only forbidden in two cases: a) when it enforces the enemies and their hostility towards Islam, and b) when it enforces the negative attributes such as idleness and feeling inferiority;
4. aggression can be neither absolutely contradicted nor absolutely defended;
5. aggression has always existed in human life;
6. the purpose of aggression should be sensible;
7. the type of aggression should be consistent with the intended purpose;
8. Quran has dealt with various methods of aggression (scientific and theological);
KEY WORDS: Social-psychology, aggression, helping behavior, the Holy Quran.
preserving, and gradual development of divine worldview and generating optimism. The last method for Psychological peace dealt with here is using Original Nature (Fitrat) and reviving it. In this part, the idea that violates moral principles causing anxiety, conscience, and the mechanism for reinforcing it are stated.
KEY WORDS: constancy of personality, self-realization; internal peace; the triad of insight, tendency and action; generating optimism; supporting and opposing conscience.
* * *
The role of religious behavior in psychological health (2)
Seyyid Mahdi Musavi Asl
In the first part of this article, we divided religious behaviors into ritual and moral types, and pointed out that the principal criterion for this division is that the religious behaviors are either in relationship to God or to people. We called the behaviors of the former type ritual and of the latter type moral. In the previous issue, we explored the role of the ritual behaviors in mental heath. In this issue, we study the moral behaviors and their importance in mental health. The moral issues are seeking to improve the human's relationship with the universe and its Creator, with others and with himself. Besides, there are at least some moral behaviors and attributes which should be regarded as psychological disorders. The moral virtues are in fact the middle point between two extremes, and are consistent with the particular nature of human which contribute to his psychological consistency and health. Besides, morality can lead to human's everlasting enjoyment. And finally, good moralities make a man favored among people and cause him to have better relations with others and enjoy mental health. In this paper, we have divided moral issues into social and individual, re-exploring each of them separately. In the section on
Translated By Seyyed Rahim Rastitabar
Religion and the mental health (2)
Abulfazl Sajedi, PhD
Tenured professor in the Imam Khomeini educational and research institute
This is the second part of the article written on the mechanisms of providing mental health in religion. In the previous issue, the nature of mental health in different schools of psychology and in Islam was studied. Then, some of the elements of mental health in western scholars' view were presented.
In this issue, from other elements of mental health provided by religion, four of them will be dealt with: constancy of personality; self-realization; harmony in the triad of insight, tendency and action; and obviation of anxiety. The Islamic methods for achieving self-realization are: reinforcing one's sense of commitment and preventing licentious freedom, weakening the worldly fondness, creating strong motivation, directing motivations, realizing the goals of religious education and training and self-knowledge. to generate harmony in the triad of insight, tendency, and action, Islam provides guidance in all three aspects. It provides the necessary grounds for the individual to remain in the right path and the wrong-doer's to return to it; thus, it paves the way for mental health. This religion has different methods in various areas of mind, soul and behavior for removing anxiety and granting psychological peace. Some of the conceptual and mental methods are as follows: promoting knowledge and preventing insight mix-up; improving the knowledge; belief in God; creating, Vol. 1, Issue. 2, Summer 2008
Concessionary: Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute
Manager: Naser Saqaie Bi-Ria
Editor in chief: Abul-Qasem Bashiri
Executive manager: Ibrahim Akhavi
Editor: Zulfaqar Naseri
Authors (in alphabetic order):
Head of Research center of the seminary and university Hujjat-ul Islam Ali Reza ArafiProfessor, Tehran University Dr. Qulam Ali AfruzProfessor, Beheshti University Dr. Muhammad Karim Khoda panahiProfessor, Tehran University Dr. Parirukh DadsetanAssociate Professor, Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute Hujjat-ul Islam Dr. M. J. ZareanAssociate Professor, Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute Hujjat-ul Islam Dr. N.Saqaie Bi-RiaAssociate Professor, Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute Hujjat-ul Islam Dr. Abas Ali ShameliAssociate Professor, Imam Khomeini Educational and Research InstituteHujjat-ul Islam Seyyid Muhammad QaraviProfessor, Baqiat Allah Medical University Dr. Ali Fathi Ashtiani
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Faculty Member, Imam Khomeini Educational & Research Institute Muhammad Reza AhmadiAssociate Professor, Shahid Beheshti University D.r Masoud JanbozorgiFaculty Member, Imam Khomeini Educational & Research Institute Muhammad DolatkhahFaculty Member, Imam Khomeini Educational & Research Institute Seyyid Sadiq MusavinasbFaculty Member, Imam Khomeini Educational & Research Institute Rahim Narooie
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219. R. Murray Thomas, Moral Development Theories: Secular and Religious, Greenwood Press, 7991.