An Inquiry on Basic Assumptions about Human Nature from Psychological and Islamic Viewpoints
Theorizing about personality necessitates a conception or inference about human nature. Almost all those theorizing about personality have stated their views on – at least some – assumptions on human nature.
In this research, firstly we have stated views of ten personality theorists about basic assumptions on human nature; then, we have discussed Islamic view in an inferential method using scientific findings and inspired by religious texts. The findings of the research have been separately presented in two tables so that various views can be meaningfully compared.
KEY WORDS: human nature, personality, basic assumptions, psychology, Islam.
A Study of the Relationship between
Marital Consent (Based on Religious Criteria)
and Demographical Factors, Education, Age Duration of Marriage, and Age Difference between Spouses
The present study aims at studying the marital satisfaction and the related factors from psychological and Islamic viewpoints. As there was no valid test for marital satisfation from religious viewpoint, which can be used to assess precisely the behavior of a Muslim family, the researcher was compelled to develop and validate a scale for measuring marital satisfation based on the existing criteria.
The sample group was composed of 110 subjects from the students of Imam Khomeini Research and Educational Institute, singled out through cluster sampling. The results were analyzed using correlation coefficient, T-test, and Variance for comparing the means. The results showed high degrees of reliability and validity of the Islamic scale for marital satisfation. The results also showed a significant relationship between education and marital consent, but no significant relationship between marriage, and the age difference between the spouses.
KEY WORDS: marital consent, education, duration of marriage, age, age difference.
Developing and Validating
the Questionnaire for Assessing the Efficiency
of Family from Islamic Viewpoint
Muhammad Mahdi Safuraie*
The present study has been designed to develop and validate the questionnaire for assessing the efficiency of the family 'based on the standards and features acquired from the authentic Islamic sources. These standards have been extracted from Quranic verses and presented in detail using a descriptive-analytical method. Based on the extracted features, the initial format of the questionnaire was designed with 120 items, and conducted – after approving its structure and contents by family experts – in a sample group composed of 238 subjects.
The validity of the questionnaire was calculated through internal consistency method. The Cronbach's Total Alpha of the questionnaire was .89, the Insight Standard was .85, the Moral Standard was .89, and the Legal Standard was .76. Furthermore, the validity of questionnaire was proved to be .834 by splitting it through Spearman-Brown method, and .833 through Guttman method.
Evaluation of the questionnaire shows an ideal degree of reliability and validity for it; thus, it can be used in the spheres of research and treatment.
KEY WORDS: standard, efficient family, authentic Islamic sources, questionnaire, psychometrics, validity, reliability.
Memorizers' General Health with Non-memorizers'
Human beings' general health has always been one of the most important issues of human communities. Here, we have dealt with studying and comparing general health of two groups: Quran memorizers versus non-memorizers. The hypothesis is that memorizing Quran can increase the youth's general health. To conduct the research, a sample group composed of 103 subjects at the ages of 17 to 27 was selected in Qom, and the 28-items general health questionnaire (GHQ) with 4 subsidiary scales was conducted. To analyze data, the two-group T-test was used. The results show a significant difference between two groups at α=.01 level. It can be said with 99% of certainty that Quran memorizers enjoy a higher level of general health in all 4 scales and as the whole compared to non-memorizers.
KEY WORDS: general health, physical symptoms, stress and insomnia disorder, social action, depression, Quran memorization.
The Elementary Scale for Assessing Reason
In view of its importance, value and special status in our Islamic culture and religious literature, reason is the criterion in many affairs, the condition for religious obligations, and the subject of many jurisprudential, legal, juridical, and epistemological issues. Accordingly, the scientific and precise study of reason, developing a new and local device and scale for assessing it, validating and proving the reliability of that scale, and finally employing it in various professions and other affairs can be highly valuable and specially necessary. This article is aimed at developing and presenting a creative Islamic scale for assessing the individuals' reason. The raw items of this new scale have been devised based on Quranic verses and Islamic traditions. The reliability of this scale was calculated qualitatively and quantitatively with the assistance of Islamic scholars and authorities, and its validity was obtained by conducting it on 53 subjects and using descriptive and inferential statistics formula including graphs, distribution indexes, Spearman and Pearson's correlations, Cronbach's Alpha test, Chi-square test, F test, and other tests for calculating significance level of correlation coefficients.
KEY WORDS: reason, scale for assessing reason, Islamic knowledge
Translated by: Seyyed Rahim Rastitabar
The Project of Islamic Self-discovery and Treatment
of Obsessive compulsive Contamination 8 Impurity, (Taharat and Najasat)
The current research aims at offering the project and package of Islamic self-discovery therapy and its effectiveness on ontamination and impurity Tahart (ritual purity) and Najasat (ritual impurity) compulsions. To carry out the study, we selected 15 subjects (9 men and 6 women) as convenient sample. Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Cattell anxiety scale were carried out as pretest. The same scales were executed as post-tests. The follow-up tests were also carried out after six months or more (up to 12 months). The resultant scores were compared with pre- and post-tests.
Through T-test for dependent groups in all three variables, the results were significant by .99 level of confidence. In pre-test and the follow-up stages, the differences were also at the same level of confidence. As the result, Islamic self-discovery therapy has significant effects on obsession, depression and anxiety and this therapeutic method can be used as the final treatment for some subjects.
Key words: Islamic self-discovery therapy, impurity, Tahart and Najasat, obsessive compulsive disorder
Table of Contents
An Inquiry on Basic Assumptions about Human Nature from Psychological and Islamic Viewpoints / Abul-Qasim Bashiri, Muhammad Gharavi, Ali Fathi Ashtiyani................................................ 7
A Study of the Relationship between Marital Consent (Based on Religious Criteria) and Demographical Factors, Education, Duration of Marriage, Age of Marriage, and Age Difference between Spouses / Ja'far Jadiri, Masoud Janbozorgi............................................................................................... 49
Developing and Validating the Questionnaire for Assessing the Efficiency of Family from Islamic Viewpoint / Muhammad Mahdi Safuraie......................................................................... 85
Comparing Quran Memorizers' General Health with Non-memorizers' / Muhammad Hussein Javaheri, Hujjat Maddahi 109
The Elementary Scale for Assessing Reason / Rahim Mir-derikvandi... 123
The Project of Islamic Self-discovery and Treatment of Obsession (Impurity, Taharat and Najasat) / Rahim Naroie Nusrati, Mahmud Mansur.......................................................................... 145
* Faculty Member of Imam Khomeini Research and Educational Institute
** Supervisor of Psychology Department in Imam Khomeini Research and Educational Institute
*** Professor in Baqiyyat Allah Medical Sciences University
* M.A. Graduate from Imam Khomeini Research and Educational Institute
** Associate Professor in Shahid Beheshti University
* Faculty Member in Imam Khomeini Research and Educational Institute
* Faculty Member of Islamic Azad University / Ashtiyan
** M.A. in Sociology – Islamic Azad University / Ashtiyan
* Faculty Member in Imam Khomeini Research and Educational Institute
* Faculty Member in Imam Khomeini Research and Educational Institute.
** Professor in Tehran University